Auto-GCAS stands for Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance
System and plays an important role in safety for fighter pilots when they enter
into combat. According to the Society of Automotive Engineers, a large number
of fatal accidents happen on the ground, or what is often referred to as
Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT). Due to the high-level of collisions both
mid-level air and on the ground, the Defense Safety Oversight Council (DSOC)
partnered with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to design a way to keep
fighter pilots safer and less prone to CFIT. The result is the implementation
of Auto-GCAS on F-16 Fighting Falcons and the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lighting II
A number of different factors can cause CFIT including
unconsciousness and distraction and – until Auto-GCAS – pilots had no way to
combat or prevent CFIT. The F-16 and the F-35 aircrafts now have Auto-GCAS to fight
the dangers of CFIT and to reduce the number of related incidents. It does so
through intricate algorithms and what is referred to as a digital terrain
database; in other words, the technology can detect an impending crash, take
control of the aircraft, and completely avoid contact with the imminent terrain.
Specifically, SAE mentions that once the Auto-GCAS system determines that a
crash is inevitable, it takes control, rolls to wings level, and executes a 5g
pull until the aircraft clears the terrain.
Mark Wilkins and Finley Barfield received the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy from the National Aeronautic Association for their contribution to Auto-GCAS systems. SAE notes that since the F-16 was equipped with Auto-GCAS in 2014, seven airplanes and eight pilots have been saved. The hope is that further integration and innovation will take place, including further implementation of automatic air collision avoidance systems, implementation of ground/air collision avoidance systems and ways to implement Auto-GCAS into larger aircraft and unmanned aerial machines.
Taken from: www.sae.org
NASA just crash-tested a full-size commercial airliner in an attempt to learn more about crash-worthiness of large aircraft. The crash test, which drew a large crowd of spectators, happened at the NASA Langley Research Center’s Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) – also known as “the gantry”. The aircraft used for the test was a Fokker F28 jet, which was dropped into the landing target from a height of approximately 150 feet in the air. The Fokker F28 was outfitted with many state of the art sensors designed to capture as much data as possible from the crash. The Fokker F28 was also painted in a special pattern that made the aircraft look a lot like a black and white spotted leopard. The black spots on the fuselage and wings of the plane were painted on the F28 to assist in determining the damage assocated to each component during the impact with the earth. High-tech cameras outfitted around the research facility are designed to capture many frames of data as the aircraft falls, and the spots assist in determining aircraft crush associated with the crash landing forces. Seated inside the Fokker F28 airliner were many crash test dummies, or more specifically Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) from the US Army. These specialized crash test dummies are equipped with force sensors that model the impact severities present to the airliner passengers during the crash. The purpose of this crash is to begin to learn about crash worthiness of airliners. The Federal Aviation Administration is in the process of establishing standards for aircraft crash worthiness for large aircraft in an attempt to design safer, more resilient commercial aircraft. Previous crash tests simply dropped aircraft from a vertical position, and this particular impact allowed the aircraft to sail from a sideways position into the crash landing site. The test will allow researchers the ability to define shortcomings in aircraft design so that they can be improved upon, resulting in a much safer aircraft of the future.
-taken from www.sae.org
Boeing has been in the news recently amid the issues that have been plaguing their aircraft. Their 737 MAX commercial aircraft in particular has been the victim of a couple of serious crashes, resulting in a lot of bad press for Boeing and a lack of consumer confidence in their aircraft. What caused the 737 MAX aircraft to crash? The United States Government is working on releasing official reports on the two accidents and the preliminary report on the accident that occurred on Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 has been released. Results from the preliminary report show that the airplane’s Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System, otherwise known as MCAS, inadvertently activated in response to incorrect signals from the aircraft’s flight angle of attack information. The aircraft’s angle of attack, a key factor in keeping an aircraft afloat in the air, is closely monitored by the 737’s Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System and the MCAS is supposed to activate under certain conditions or if the angle of attack reaches certain thresholds. The preliminary reports show that incorrect activation of the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System caused a situation where the flight’s pilots in command were unable to compensate for, ultimately resulting in the aircraft crashes. Pilots are typically under significant stress during flying as it is, and counteracting an improperly functioning system such as the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System can quickly overwhelm the pilot to the point of crashing. In an attempt to counteract the improperly functioning Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System, Boeing plans to roll out a software update which will allow the pilots to safely overcome the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System and manually control the airplane should a system failure happen again. It is unclear as to when Boeing will release the software updates, however they are currently testing the software updates in demo flights.
-taken from www.sae.org