Back in 2010, Toyota developed a solar power system for the roofs of their Prius hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The goal behind the initiative for Toyota was to see if a vehicle’s rooftop would provide enough solar power to charge the vehicle’s battery, providing drivers a few extra miles before the next charging session. According to Toyota, it was the company’s first steps towards producing a self-charging car. But the solar cells implemented into Toyota’s photovoltaic system provided just enough power to run auxiliary devices such as the power steering pump, ventilation fan, and air-conditioning compressor. This was due to the fact that the solar cells generated a capacity of only 50 watts.
this with the design of the Lightyear One created by a startup company based in
the Netherlands. Total peak output is 1.25kW which is enough power to provide
anywhere between 20 – 45 miles of average range per day, according to Lightyear.
Lowie Vermeersch created the design of the Lightyear One and an engineering
firm based in Germany – Aachen – helped develop its integral 60-kWh battery
system. The strategy, according to Lightyear’s chief technology officer, Arjo
van der Ham, was their clean-sheet, systems-engineered approach. This meant a propulsion motor at each wheel,
lightweight materials, advanced aerodynamics, and enough sky-facing surface
area to host about 1,000 photovoltaic cells. As Eric Wesoff of PV Magazine
points out, the challenge to accomplishing the goals of aerodynamic efficiency
and solar power efficiency lies in the design. He explains that you want a car
that can both charge itself, which would require a broad area for the PV cells,
yet remain aerodynamically efficient, which would require a narrow body design.
This is where Lightyear stayed true to its systems approach and the company believes it addressed this challenge in competing design goals. Lightyear believes it has met the challenge by integrating the motors with the suspension via a propulsion motor in each wheel and by making adjustments to the battery size. Lightyear also believes that they have now provided a solid architecture that other companies will use in the future as they push towards self-charging cars.
Taken from: www.sae.orghttps://www.sae.org/news/2020/03/lightyear-one-solar-ev
JCB – a British company that produces construction and agricultural equipment – has a line of tractors known as the Fastrac series. In stock form, a Fastrac tractor can reach speeds of up to 43 mph, but last summer, JCB said it wanted to push the idea of speedy tractors further. Enter the Fastrac One – the tractor that set a new record for tractor speed at 103 mph at Elvington Airfield in Britain. JCB chairman, Lord Bamford, who was present when the Fastrac One hit 103 mph, said he wanted to “go even faster.” Thus, Fastrac Two was born.
order to achieve “even faster” status, Bamford laid out objectives that included
the creation of a tractor that was 10% lighter than Fastrac One and had greater
aerodynamic efficiency. JCB’s development team – in conjunction with
counterparts at Ricardo, GKN Wheels & Structures, and Williams Advanced
Engineering – went to work figuring out how they could reduce the weight,
increase power, and reduce drag resistance while staying faithful to the
front-end styling of the Fastrac series. They explained that in undertaking
these challenges, they relied on predictive analysis in order to define what
design elements needed changing and how they would best be implemented.
for power, the engineers and development team at JCB discovered that using one
small turbo and one larger turbo created packaging problems that ultimately
hindered the aerodynamic efficiency. JCB team said that using one large turbo circumvented
the packaging problem so they turned to the Cummins Holset turbocharger and the
Federal-Mogul COBRA electric supercharger.
for aerodynamics, the team lowered the ride height, lowering and narrowing the
cab. CFD simulations of the external skin of the tractor helped the team locate
areas with high drag and – according to Williams Advanced Engineering – the overall
result was a 25% reduction in drag compared to a stock tractor. Other areas
that underwent changes included the chassis, front overhang, the underfloor,
and the exterior mirrors.
The end result for the Fastrac Two is a 7.2L 6-cylinder turbo diesel capable of 1006 hp and 1748 lb-ft. The Fastrac Two reached 153.77 mph.
Taken from: www.sae.org
Sun visors in motor vehicles have been around since the
1920s. Recently, Bosch decided that it was time to upgrade the design and
technology of sun visors that have remained virtually unchanged since their
inception. What they have come up with is known as the “Virtual Visor.” Bosch
states that the idea behind the Virtual Visor is to reduce sun glare, which can
impair the driver’s ability to see clearly while driving.
The technology is a transparent liquid crystal display (LCD) panel comprised of hexagonal pixels in a honeycomb grid. The transparent screen is used with an RGB camera inside the vehicle that tracks where the sun is coming from and where it shines on the driver’s face. Together, the LCD screen and RGB camera can track the driver’s face, track moving shadows, and track sunlight. Artificial intelligence takes these data and uses an algorithm to identify exactly where the driver’s eyes are. According to Bosch engineers, this algorithm was the most challenging piece of the technology. They wanted the algorithm to be able to do all of the tasks listed above – identify the driver’s face, track moving shadows, and locate which direction the sun was coming from – and then use that to constantly and accurately update the location and degree of shade of the Visual Visor. AI should ideally be able to provide relief from sun glare by casting shade directly over the driver’s eyes, Bosch says.
Bosch claims that one of the advantages to the Virtual Visor includes reduced sun glare and better visibility as drivers will be able to see through the visor even as it provides shade. In other words, Bosch believes that with the Virtual Visor, drivers would no longer block a portion of their view in order to get relief from the sun while driving.
Taken from: www.sae.org
TuSimple – a San Diego-based company that designs autonomous
driving technology for the trucking industry – claims that their autonomous
driving technology reduces fuel consumption by 10%. In terms of fuel saved,
TuSimple asserts that a 10% reduction across the board would be equivalent to 4
billion gallons of fuel. TuSimple arrived at these figures by conducting a
study with the Jacobs School of Engineering at the University of California San
Diego. The study examined how autonomy impacts fuel consumption.
The test was conducted by equipping autonomous trucks with what
is known as black box technology. This technology tracks and records data
pertaining to the vehicle’s driving performance, including statistics such as speed,
GPS location, and distance to name a few. In order to gauge fuel consumption
from the black box data, TuSimple’s researchers relied on the Virginia Tech
Comprehensive Power-based Fuel Consumption model which combines the function of
speed, location, acceleration and braking to derive estimates. Researchers also
equipped manually driven trucks with black box technology so that they could
compare fuel efficiency between manual and autonomous trucks.
Once the manual and autonomous trucks had black box technology installed, researchers looked at fuel consumption at different ranges of speeds. According to researchers, the goal was to determine whether fuel efficiency changed at all based on speed. Based on the study, TuSimple concludes that the greatest fuel savings between manual and autonomous trucks happen while driving at slower speeds that involve a higher frequency of acceleration and braking. Conversely, TuSimple reports that highway speeds showed very little difference in fuel efficiency between autonomous and manual trucks. In conclusion, TuSimple believes that autonomous trucking can significantly reduce fuel consumption and asserts that if all medium- and heavy-duty trucks adopted their self-driving technology, that CO2 emissions would be cut by 42 million metric tons per year.
Taken from: www.sae.org
Engine developers face new trends in the industry that
significantly influence how they produce engines for heavy-duty vehicles. Their
main areas of concern include machine ownership patterns, political forces such
as government regulations, and getting new products to the market quicker and
more efficiently. Caterpillar Industrial Power Systems designed the new C3.6
engine with these factors in mind, stating specifically that customer feedback
and lower owning and operating costs were at the top of their priorities list. According
to Caterpillar, the result is the compact C3.6 engine that is electronically
turbocharged, giving it the capability to produce 134-hp, more power density,
and better torque than its predecessor.
As for machine ownership patterns, the product marketing
manager for Caterpillar – Alex Eden – explains that customers are shifting towards
a rental economy rather than the traditional ownership model. Instead of buying
heavy-duty vehicles and machines, customers and fleets are looking to rent them.
This raises questions about future sales processes and product cycles that are
yet to be answered.
In addition to market influences, government regulations put
pressure on engine developers with measures such as CO2 and emissions
regulations, air quality improvement standards, and zero-emission zones for
urban areas. In particular, demand grows for quieter engines that fall in line
with urban noise restrictions. Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) is a major
concern in engine design. Pierpaolo Biffali – VP of product engineering at FPT
Industrial – states that though the industry is heading for zero-emissions,
clean diesel engines reduce CO2 levels in the meantime.
The last major factor that influences engine design is the competitiveness of the industry. When producing the C3.6, Caterpillar utilized a 3D printer to reduce production time. Developers printed an entire C3.6 engine in its various parts and examined how all the pieces would fit together before actual assembly. When the parts arrived, they assembled the engine faster and more efficiently than they had without the 3D printer which is crucial to remaining competitive in the market. Caterpillar believes that technology like this will help them remain competitive in the future by getting products to the market faster without sacrificing quality.
Taken from: www.sae.org
There may soon be a new way to take a cab from point A to point B: through the air. A subsidiary of Boeing – Aurora Flight Sciences – tested its first autonomous personal air vehicle (PAV) in January and during the test, the PAV successfully executed its takeoff, hovering, and landing. The aircraft was not operated by a pilot but had two dummies sitting in the cockpit. The PAV is powered by an electric propulsion system that consists of 8 lift motors and a cruise propeller in the back. When it is launched, it is expected to be able to travel up to 50 miles in one flight. Boeing’s hope is to produce autonomous electric air vehicles that will be cleaner and quieter than aircraft vehicles that are currently available.
An amazing feature of the PAV is its ability to
hover, conduct forward motion, and switch off between the two during flight. Ideally,
air taxis will be able to lift passengers straight up off the ground, hover
when necessary, and fly them to wherever they need to go. The idea of taking an
airborne taxi sounds like something reserved for top executives and
millionaires but this business concept is modeled on the same ride-sharing
services that Uber and Lyft use. In fact, Uber has stated that it hopes to
provide air taxi service in Dallas and Los Angeles as soon as 2023.
The concept of autonomous air vehicles is not new to
Aurora Flight Sciences. Since its inception in 1989, Aurora has produced more
than 30 autonomous air vehicles, including an autonomous cargo system for the
United States Marines. This is especially useful to Marines when they find
themselves in dangerous environments that make it difficult for traditional aircraft
Other aerospace manufacturers are working alongside Aurora to design and produce autonomous air vehicles, including Bell Helicopter and Airbus. Airbus is currently working to execute the first flight of is CityAirbus which will carry up to 4 passengers.
Taken from: www.asme.org
Auto-GCAS stands for Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance
System and plays an important role in safety for fighter pilots when they enter
into combat. According to the Society of Automotive Engineers, a large number
of fatal accidents happen on the ground, or what is often referred to as
Controlled Flight into Terrain (CFIT). Due to the high-level of collisions both
mid-level air and on the ground, the Defense Safety Oversight Council (DSOC)
partnered with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to design a way to keep
fighter pilots safer and less prone to CFIT. The result is the implementation
of Auto-GCAS on F-16 Fighting Falcons and the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lighting II
A number of different factors can cause CFIT including
unconsciousness and distraction and – until Auto-GCAS – pilots had no way to
combat or prevent CFIT. The F-16 and the F-35 aircrafts now have Auto-GCAS to fight
the dangers of CFIT and to reduce the number of related incidents. It does so
through intricate algorithms and what is referred to as a digital terrain
database; in other words, the technology can detect an impending crash, take
control of the aircraft, and completely avoid contact with the imminent terrain.
Specifically, SAE mentions that once the Auto-GCAS system determines that a
crash is inevitable, it takes control, rolls to wings level, and executes a 5g
pull until the aircraft clears the terrain.
Mark Wilkins and Finley Barfield received the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy from the National Aeronautic Association for their contribution to Auto-GCAS systems. SAE notes that since the F-16 was equipped with Auto-GCAS in 2014, seven airplanes and eight pilots have been saved. The hope is that further integration and innovation will take place, including further implementation of automatic air collision avoidance systems, implementation of ground/air collision avoidance systems and ways to implement Auto-GCAS into larger aircraft and unmanned aerial machines.
Taken from: www.sae.org
According to the United
States Department of Transportation and the Insurance Institute for Highway
Safety, 10 vehicle manufacturers equipped more than 50% of their vehicles with
automatic emergency braking (AEB) between 2017 and 2018. This is a significant
increase from the previous year and proves how seriously the auto industry views
vehicle and road safety. AEB systems are a form of crash avoidance technology
that the NHTSA believes will significantly enhance vehicle safety on the roads.
In fact, according to studies conducted by IIHS, vehicles equipped with AEB
systems reduce rear-end accidents resulting in injuries by approximately 50%.
Further, their studies showed that rear-end crashes involving third-party
injuries were reduced by 59%. The technology works by detecting an object in
front of the car using a variety of sensors and cameras. When the system
detects an object, it alerts the driver but if the driver does not respond fast
enough, the system takes over and applies the brakes instead.
The implementation of AEB systems by automakers is completely voluntary and part of a commitment made by 20 manufacturers to have crash avoidance technology installed in all passenger vehicles by 2022. The manufacturers who committed include Audi, BMW, Fiat Chrysler, Ford, General motors, Honda, Hyundai, Jaguar Land Rover, Kia, Maserati, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Mitsubishi Motors, Nissan, Porsche, Subaru, Tesla Motors, Toyota, Volkswagen, and Volvo. The underlying goal in implementing crash avoidance technology is to increase driver safety, decrease accident-related injuries, and prevent accidents from happening in the first place. In other words, many are hopeful that AEB and similar technology will help make roads and overall driving safer. Based on research, IIHS estimates that this particular effort will prevent nearly 30,000 crashes by 2025.
Taken from: www.nhtsa.gov