Posts Tagged ‘engineering’
Aerospace and automotive industries are increasing their usage of plastics in aircraft and vehicle design. Specifically, high performance plastics, such as composites, carbon fiber, and similar carbon-based materials usage is on the rise. High performance plastics are being used more and more to replace current steel, aluminum, and even titanium components. High performance plastic components are increasing in popularity because they provide a good strength to weight ratio for many components and can be manufactured easily. In addition, many new automotive and aircraft designs, which are migrating towards advanced material applications, may use high performance plastics in emissions reducing goals, as lightweight components require less energy and fuel consumption to propel them. In high-production markets, the usage of high performance plastics is expected to increase from now until approximately 2024, when it will become a $3 billion dollar industry.
The rise of high performance plastics allows manufacturers to produce vehicles and aircraft that are lightweight. The goal of light weight and superior strength is not new; however achieving levels of strength not previously achieved and keeping the vehicle’s weight down has reached new levels due to the usage of high performance plastics. In addition, internal combustion engine-powered vehicles may soon be replaced to some degree by electric vehicles, which will utilize composites and high performance plastics in many different and challenging ways. Battery production and energy storage are two areas of electric vehicles that may benefit from the development and usage of high performance plastics.
Manufacturing processes that produce high performance plastics are also diversifying. Plastic components can be made through additive manufacturing quite easily. Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as 3D printing, produces much less waste than traditional manufacturing processes and can create intricate parts while maintaining tight tolerances. High performance plastics can take advantage of additive manufacturing to produce parts that ultimately cost much less to make than current metal components.
-taken from www.sae.org
Aerospace companies Boeing and Airbus are working on developing new components to aid in developing new aircraft structures. Forecasts of aircraft sales show that the worldwide demand of large passenger airplanes will increase and an overall production number of up to 40,000 new aircraft may be realized in the next 20 years. To meet this new demand, Boeing and Airbus are working on developing new honeycomb panels that are designed to be structurally stiff, strong, and importantly, easy to assemble and produce. For the increase in aircraft demand, new aircraft structures must be easy to assemble and sub-components must be manufactured rapidly.
The new structure composites or sandwiches are being developed for Boeing and Airbus by Belgium Company EconCore, along with Diehl Aircabin. The sandwich structures consist of a lightweight inner honeycomb lattice that is sandwiched between two thin layers of either aluminum or other lightweight material, to create a structure that is lightweight, strong, and has excellent thermal insulating qualities. Insulating against the cold external atmosphere while aircraft are in flight is crucial for passenger comfort and safety. In addition to the insulating properties, the inner honeycomb lattice can be made out of lightweight polycarbonate to create an excellent fire barrier within the sandwich structure. Polycarbonate is strong and resists flammability, making it a good choice for many aircraft structures.
The process developed by EconCore can be formed into many different shapes; however joining the layers of the sandwich material together may pose another problem. To remedy this issue, new formulae of bonding adhesives are being developed to properly secure the components together. The benefit of using bonding adhesives instead of traditional rivets, screws, or other hardware, is the weight savings, however ensuring that the bonds between composite components remains solid for the life of the aircraft is being tested before it is put into production.
-taken from www.sae.org
The United States Marine Corps is working on a few autonomous aircraft projects to enhance their performance in the battlefield. These aircraft are being designed to drop off supplies and ordinance to troops while located in remote areas that are otherwise difficult to reach without the use of specialized piloting techniques. In recent demonstration flights, autonomous helicopters were able to successfully drop off supplies while located within a test area. The company that is working on the autonomous development, Aurora Flight Science, retrofitted a UH-1H helicopter with autonomous sensors and cameras as well as LIDAR radar in order to be able to fly autonomously. The UH-1H helicopter was first developed in the 1950’s and 1970’s as a general-use helicopter. The UH-1H was made famous during the Vietnam War and is still in use today for many purposes. The Office of Naval Research’s (ONR) Autonomous Aerial Cargo Utility System (AACUS) program is developing a flight apparatus that can be retrofitted to more than just UH-1H helicopters. The goal is to make an aircraft-agnostic system that can be used on multiple flight platforms and can be controlled by a simple tablet-based system on the ground by troop deployments. The ground-based control will be simple enough to use that it will not require any advanced training in order to call in for re-supply missions or other support.
Aurora Flight Science’s system allows for vertical flight aircraft to detect and identify multiple hazards in the flight path of the aircraft. After detection, the hazards can be safely avoided using the built-in computers that control the aircraft at all times. The Autonomous Aerial Cargo Utility System has transitioned to the final stages before being used in the field. The United States Marine Corps is now performing experimentation and potential acquisition on the system.
Autonomous Aerial Cargo Utility System is also developing a high-performance vertical flight system, named Orion that is capable of flying for approximately 100 hours with a payload of about 1000 lbs. This unmanned aerial vehicle will is being developed under a new contract with the military and will be suitable for deployment anywhere in the world.
-taken from www.sae.org
Komatsu is developing a system of artificial intelligence to be used in large-scale construction sites. The artificial intelligence is being developed in an attempt to gather more data on the heavy equipment used in the construction sites and, more importantly, to increase the safety to equipment operators and ground personnel. Komatsu is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of heavy equipment, mining equipment, and other construction equipment. Komatsu is developing the artificial intelligence system along with NVidia, who is well-known as a computer hardware developer in industries such as commercial, retail, and medical. The construction artificial intelligence system, dubbed SmartConstruction, will have the capability to control heavy equipment and can identify and distinguish between ground personnel, inanimate objects, and heavy equipment around the entire construction site.
Komatsu will be using NVidia’s Jetson computing platform as a basis for the artificial intelligence development. The Jetson platform is very small, about the size of a credit card, and powerful to compute virtual surroundings taken from the individual cameras used in all of Komatsu’s construction equipment. In addition to ground level cameras, drones will be used overhead the construction site to provide real-time updates as to local positioning of resources, equipment, and personnel. The drones will be operated by SkyCatch, another feature provided by NVidia as part of their Inception Program Startups.
The first locations to use the new artificial intelligence technology will be in Japan, where an aging workforce and lack of qualified labor bring strong demand for computer-controlled equipment. In Japan, the technology will be fine-tuned and validated. However, the entire world will benefit from the new technology and after test runs are completed, the AI technology will be released worldwide.
Komatsu is anticipating that SmartConstruction will decrease the dangers typically found in construction and mining work sites, all while increasing productivity and reducing costs to the end-users.
-taken from www.sae.org
Caterpillar Heavy Equipment has recently entered the Utility Vehicle (UTV) market with two brand new vehicles. The Caterpillar UTV’s are similar in size and capability to existing UTV’s such as the Polaris Ranger, Kawasaki Mule, or John Deere Gator. This is the first ever attempt by Caterpillar to make a vehicle that fits within this market. The Caterpillar CUV82 is a gasoline-powered utility vehicle with bench seating, a tubular cage surrounding the occupant compartment, and a small pickup bed over the rear wheels. The CUV82 will have a top speed of around 45 mph and can carry 1000 lbs of cargo with a 2000 lb towing capacity. The CUV102D is the bigger brother to the CUV82 and will be powered by a small displacement diesel engine. The CUV102D has similar load rating capacities and can travel approximately 25 mph. The Caterpillar UTV’s are designed to be used by work force as support for operations or as a farm utility vehicle, similar to offerings from other heavy equipment manufacturers, such as Bobcat and John Deere. Both Caterpillar utility vehicles will share similar drivetrains including continuously variable transmissions (CVT). Options include either two or four-wheel-drive and the option to add lockers to the four-wheel-drive version for use in rough off-road terrain. Ground clearance for both models is 10.5 inches.
Caterpillar has contracted Textron Specialized Vehicles in Thief River Falls, Minnesota to manufacture their utility vehicles. Textron manufactures their own line of utility vehicles, as well as vehicles under other name brands such as Arctic Cat. Caterpillar and Textron developed the utility vehicles collaboratively and Caterpillar while taking into consideration recommendations from customers and dealerships on included functionality, features, and capability. The Cat ‘Utes were tested extensively and thoroughly as part of their development and a new version with seating for an entire crew will be released in Fall 2018. The Caterpillar UTV’s are on sale now.
taken from www.sae.org
A new technology developed for large semi trucks and other commercial vehicles shows great promise in increasing fuel economy. Semi tractor trailer vehicles, otherwise known as “Big Rigs” are the focus of a new cutting edge product that is being developed to help these large trucks reduce fuel consumption. The product uses plasma-emitting strips along the trailing edges of the big rig’s trailer to help eliminate aerodynamic drag present at the rear of the vehicle. Preliminary studies show that the plasma strips can reduce fuel consumption at highway speeds up to 10%, a significant savings considering there are over 133 million large trucks on the road that could benefit from this technology, and commercial vehicles consume over 60 billion gallons of fuel per year currently.
The plasma strips consist of two electric plates separated by an insulating material that are energized at a high voltage to produce an electric plasma, or fourth state of matter. The plasma works to reduce air turbulence by negatively charging particles in the air, thus reducing the amount of turbulence caused at sharp corners, such as the sharp corners on the edges of a big rig’s leading edges, or the back of a trailer. The company that is developing this technology, Plasma Stream Technologies, has dubbed the system eTail. Plasma Stream Technologies claims that the system is completely safe and has shown great promise in laboratory tests. Real-world testing of the eTail is scheduled to begin in the coming months. Plasma Stream Technologies anticipates that a sellable product will be available to the commercial market by 2018.
A retrofit device is expected to cost around $2000 and provide an average savings of over $8000 for big rigs that travel the roadways consistently. The eTail will be mountable on the rear edge of trailers without any additional modification. A huge benefit of the eTail over conventional aerodynamic aids such as boat-tails is that the eTail does not impede access to the rear doors of the trailers. The eTail will take up only a few inches of space around the rear of the trailer.
Read More: Society of Automotive Engineering Article
Fiat Chrysler is undergoing a new series of investigations into their dial-actuated shifters used in many of their automatic transmission-equipped vehicles. This time, Dodge models, including the model years 2014 to 2016 Durango, and the 2013 to 2017 Ram Truck are under investigation by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) because the vehicles roll away after they have been shifted into park. The dial-actuated shifters use an electronic rotary controller to actuate the mechanical shifting mechanisms inside the transmission and the actuators do not effectively shift into park in some cases, allowing the vehicle to roll away from the intended position if the vehicle is left on a slight grade without any additional resistance to movement.
NHTSA is gathering information to formulate an official recall for the Durango and Ram Truck vehicles. At this point, NHTSA is investigating how frequently and how severe the reported roll-away cases are to determine a plan of action for the recall. Up to this point, there have been 43 reported cases of Durangos or Rams moving away from the driver after the shifter was put in park, and of these 43 cases, 25 have resulted in crashes or property damage, and approximately nine incidents have resulted in personal injuries, but no fatalities have been reported due to this issue.
The dial-actuated shifter mechanism is different than the mechanism used by Chrysler in their Charger, Chrysler 300, and Grand Cherokee models that has already been recalled on over 1.1 million vehicles, however the actuation process is very similar to the previously-recalled unit. NHTSA expects that the recall of the Durango and Ram models will affect over 1 million vehicles.
Taken from Motor1